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Well Water Treatment Systems

Ningthoujam Sandhyarani Oct 28, 2018
Selecting an effective well water treatment system is necessary to remove the pollutants before using it for household purposes. One of the most cost-effective treatment options for well water is the use of chlorinators.
A water well is a structure constructed for the purpose of deriving water from the underground aquifers. Wells are created by digging, drilling, or boring in the ground till groundwater is reached. The depth of a well and its capacity differ as per the design. Depending upon the methodology of accessing water, they are classified as dug, driven, or drilled.
Previously, well water was drawn up mechanically by using buckets and other containers. In recent times, most of the wells are fixed with pumps for easy access. This water is then stored in the storage tanks for day-to-day usage.
In some regions, water from wells is still used as a major source for drinking. Nevertheless, like other sources, this also contains pollutants such as particulate matter, microbes, toxic chemicals, and other contaminants.

Quality

The quality of well water may vary according to the characteristics of the ground from which it is extracted. The chances of contamination in the well are high, especially in the dug type, as there is an exposure of the surface.
Majority of the samples collected from wells are found to be contaminated in some way or the other. Proper testing of this water helps in identifying the chemical, biological, and particulate matters that are present in the sample.

Treatment Systems - Chlorinators

Some basic test protocols for testing well water are hardness, pH level, mineral test, heavy metal test, pesticide test, and volatile gas analysis. For color and odor problems, the sample of this water should be tested for methane, hydrogen sulfide, bacteria, iron level, and manganese content. Regular monitoring should be done at least once in six months.
Select the treatment system as per the quality analysis results. One of the most safe and cost-effective method for purification of this water is the Chlorination. In this process, a specific amount of chlorine containing compound is added in the well. Most popularly used chlorinators are sodium hypochlorite (also known as bleach) and calcium hypochlorite.
Chlorinators are available in various concentrations. So, while using them, always follow the instructions as to how much of the compound should be used for a particular quantity of water. Less amount of a chlorinator may result in the retention of contaminants even after the treatment. Also, excess usage may impart chlorine smell in the treated water.
There are several advantages of chlorinators used for the treatment of well water. To mention a few, they are effective in killing disease causing microbes (bacteria, viruses) and reducing the rotten egg smell caused by hydrogen sulfide.
Studies have shown that they are also effective in breaking down bacterial slimes and destroying algae. Another advantage of chlorinators is facilitating the removal of iron from the water.
Drawbacks of chlorinators, they may form harmful chlorine compounds with the chemicals and minerals present in the water. Some fluorides, nitrates, radionuclide substances, and hazardous chemicals, like pesticides and heavy metals, are retained even after the treatment with chlorinators. Very high amount of chlorinator is needed for an effective treatment.
Besides well water chlorinators, there are several other treatment methods, such as reverse osmosis, anion exchanger, activated carbon filter, ozone treatment, and ultraviolet purifier. While opting for any of these home water treatment systems, make sure that the performance and/or effectiveness of the device is examined properly.